Premieres Tuesday, January 17 7-9:00 p.m. on WTVP-HD.
Wednesday, January 4th, 2012
- New Two-Hour Documentary Explores the Life of One of the Most
Controversial and Mythic Figures in American History -
America had just finished celebrating its 100th birthday, when, on July 6, 1876, the telegraph brought
word that General George Armstrong Custer and 261 members of his Seventh Cavalry column had been massacred by
Cheyenne and Lakota warriors along the Little Bighorn River in Montana Territory. The news was greeted with stunned
disbelief. How could Custer, the “boy general” of the Civil War, America’s most celebrated Indian fighter, the avatar
of western expansion, have been struck down by a group of warriors armed with little more than bows and arrows? Like
everything else about Custer, his martyrdom was shrouded in controversy and contradictions, and the final act of his
larger-than-life career was played out on a grand stage with a spellbound public engrossed in the drama. In the end, his
death would launch one of the greatest myths in American history.
Custer’s Last Stand,
a new two-hour biography of one of the most celebrated and controversial icons of nineteenth-century America, paints a
penetrating psychological portrait of Custer’s charismatic, narcissistic personality, and for the first time on
television, explores the fateful relationships within the officers of the Seventh Cavalry that would lead him to his
doom. This new biography allows viewers to take a fresh look at Custer’s passionate love affair with his wife Libbie,
and their mutually ambitious partnership that made them the power couple of the 1870s. From Custer’s heroic exploits
on the battlefields of the Civil War, to his often brutal subjugation of the Indians of the Southern Plains, to his
highly publicized expedition into the Black Hills, Custer was a man in a hurry, desperately trying to “be” Custer,
struggling to maintain the fame that had come to define him.
Directed by Stephen Ives (Seabiscuit, The West, Panama Canal), Custer’s
Last Stand will premiere on the PBS series AMERICAN EXPERIENCE on Tuesday, January 17 7-9:00 p.m. on WTVP-HD,
part of a month-long salute to the West that also includes the premiere of
Billy the Kid
(January10) and rebroadcasts of
Annie Oakley and
The son of an Ohio blacksmith, George Armstrong Custer was determined to transcend his lowly
origins by earning a coveted spot at West Point. Always rebellious and a risk-taker, Custer graduated with a
record of infractions never before equaled in the history of the academy. Fresh out of West Point when the Civil
War began, Custer quickly proved more than ready for command, distinguishing himself in a series of dashing
cavalry charges (including the decisive Battle of Gettysburg) that put him on the front page of Harper’s
Weekly. He became known as the “boy general.”
At his side, often in a tent near the front lines, was the love of his life, Elizabeth Bacon
Custer. They had met in the small town of Monroe, Michigan, and from the outset, shared a passion and ambition
for greatness. Always more politically adept and diplomatic than her husband, Libbie provided the perfect
complement to her often brash and overbearing spouse. Unlike many army wives at the time, Elizabeth was
determined to accompany her husband to even the most remote and dangerous posts, and she was at his side when
Custer joined the Seventh Cavalry, a new regiment being mustered out to the Southern Plains of Kansas and Oklahoma.
It was 1866 and the western frontier was awash in conflict. As railroads continued to push
further west and new waves of settlers followed, clashes with Indians intensified. Unaccustomed to the tactics of
the Cheyenne and Arapaho, Custer spent months fruitlessly chasing after elusive bands of warriors. At one point,
he became so frustrated that he abandoned his command and dashed 150 miles in 55 hours just to spend one day with
his wife. He was court-martialed, suspended from the service and denied pay for a year. Custer’s salvation would
come from General Philip Sheridan, who recalled him and asked him to lead a daring new winter campaign against
the Cheyenne. In a bloody dawn attack along the Washita River in 1868, Custer and his men killed 103 Indians —
a few warriors, but mostly women, children and old men. Now dressed in buckskins, Custer was hailed as the
nation’s finest Indian fighter. He had managed to resurrect his career from the depths of disgrace and reinvent
himself as a new hero of the American frontier.
Custer’s heroics on the Southern Plains masked a complicated relationship with native people. As
Nathaniel Philbrick, author of The Last Stand, says, “[Custer] identified with them very strongly, prided
himself on knowledge of their rituals and lifestyle. But, on the other hand, he’s part of white civilization and
saw them as a primitive race that was going to eventually melt into the shadows.”
Custer was again given a chance for glory in 1874, this time leading a survey expedition into the
Black Hills. By the terms of the Fort Laramie Treaty, this striking oasis in the middle of the Northern Plains
had been guaranteed to the Sioux forever and was considered by the tribe to be their most sacred ground. Sheridan
hoped Custer’s provocative foray into the Black Hills would spark a new Indian war and push “hostile” bands, led
by the defiant chief Sitting Bull, back onto the reservations. But there were no conflicts with Indians, and
Custer turned the expedition into a stage for himself, scouting the trail, writing reports for the army and
articles for newspapers back East, collecting specimens, and writing his Civil War memoirs. But in the summer of
1876, Custer’s journey into the Black Hills, what the Lakota had dubbed “The Thieves Road,” became a rallying
cry as thousands of Indians left the reservations and joined Sitting Bull along the tributaries of the Upper
Yellowstone River. Sheridan sent Custer, under General Alfred Terry, to subdue Sitting Bull and his people once
and for all.
Riding with Custer on the expedition were his two senior officers, Major Marcus Reno, a brooding
melancholic with a taste for whiskey, and Captain Frederick Benteen, a dyspeptic veteran of the Plains Wars who
harbored a grudge against Custer for his actions at the Washita. The tortured relationship between these two men
would prove decisive in the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
The battle, on June 25 - 26, 1876, would actually be three battles: Reno’s ill-fated charge into
Sitting Bull’s village; his ragged retreat to the bluffs where he and Benteen would hold off thousands of Lakota
and Cheyenne warriors for almost 36 hours; and Custer’s Last Stand, which would be forever cloaked in mystery —
a chaotic and confused scene that to this day remains a subject of controversy and debate.
No sooner had the news of Custer’s massacre reached Philadelphia than the mythmaking began. It
would be Libbie Custer who would do more than anyone to shape the legend of her husband. In a series of
bestselling books, the faithful widow extolled Custer’s heroic virtues and dauntless courage, and she kept it
up until she died in 1933. Future decades would ceaselessly re-interpret the meaning of the Custer myth, each
generation seemingly adapting his story to suit the needs of their own time. For Americans during World War II,
Custer served to rally a nation engaged in a fight for its survival against totalitarianism. In the Vietnam era,
Custer would be seen as a symbol of American arrogance and violent imperialism.
Says historian Michael A. Elliott, “Custer is controversial for the same reasons he was so
successful in his own time. He was an outsized personality who used the tools around him to shape himself into a
public figure that embodies many of the things that make us uncomfortable about American history — the way that
Americans sometimes rush into a military action, the way that America has treated American Indians and other
peoples now around the world. These are questions that are really raw and nagging and we haven’t resolved them.
And until we do we’re going to keep returning to Custer and the controversies that surround him.” Adds AMERICAN
EXPERIENCE Executive Producer Mark Samels, “Custer is a remarkable individual. Love him or hate him, you can’t
take your eyes off him.”
The Participants, in order of appearance
Nathaniel Philbrick is the author of The New York Times bestseller The Last Stand:
Custer, Sitting Bull, and the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
Richard Slotkin is a cultural critic and the Olin Professor of English and American Studies
at Wesleyan University.
Louis Warren is a professor of Western U.S. History at the University of California, Davis.
Michael A. Elliott is a professor of English at Emory University and the author of Custerology:
The Enduring Legacy of the Indian Wars and George Armstrong Custer.
Edward Linenthal is a professor of history at Indiana University.
Gerard Baker is the former superintendent, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.
Paul A. Hutton is a professor of history at the University of New Mexico and the editor of
The Custer Reader.
Louise Barnett is a professor of American Studies at Rutgers University and the author of
Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer.
Shirley Leckie Reed is a professor of history at the University of Central Florida and the
author of Elizabeth Bacon Custer and the Making of a Myth.
Philip J. Deloria is a professor of history at the University of Michigan.
About the Filmmakers STEPHEN IVES (Producer/Director) In his twenty years of work in public television, Stephen Ives has established
himself as one of the nation's leading independent documentary directors. His landmark series The West was
seen by more than 38 million people nationwide during its national premiere in the fall of 1996, making it one of the
most-watched PBS programs of all time. Caryn James of The New York Times wrote that The West was
“fiercely and brilliantly rooted in fact,” and The New York Daily News called the programs a “breathtakingly
beautiful series of films…that make riveting TV.” Ives’s Lindbergh, a portrait of the reluctant American hero Charles
A. Lindbergh, premiered in the third season of AMERICAN EXPERIENCE on PBS in 1990. In 1987, Ives began a
decade-long collaboration with filmmaker Ken Burns, as a co-producer of a history of the United States Congress, and
as a consulting producer on the ground-breaking series, The Civil War and Baseball.
After the premiere of The West, Ives turned his attention towards contemporary films, producing
a profile of the innovative Cornerstone Theater Company, which aired on HBO in the fall of 1999, and Amato: A Love
Affair with Opera, a portrait of the world’s smallest opera company which aired on PBS in 2001 and earned Ives a
nomination from the Directors Guild of America for Outstanding Directorial Achievement.
His profile of the 1930s thoroughbred Seabiscuit, which aired on AMERICAN EXPERIENCE in April
2003, won a Primetime Emmy award. His PBS series, Reporting America at War, about American war correspondents,
was described by The Los Angeles Times as “television that matters…a visual document of power and clarity.”
Since 2003, he has directed seven films for AMERICAN EXPERIENCE: Seabiscuit, Las Vegas, New
Orleans, Kit Carson, Roads to Memphis, Panama Canal and the upcoming Grand Coulee Dam.
Written and Directed by Stephen Ives
Produced by Amanda Pollak
Edited by Howard Sharp
Associate Producer Lauren DeFilippo
Director of Photography Andrew Young
Music by Peter Rundquist
Narrated by Michael Murphy
MARK SAMELS (Executive Producer) Under Samels’ leadership, the series has been honored with
nearly every industry award, including the Peabody, Primetime Emmys, the duPont-Columbia Journalism Award, Writers
Guild Awards, Oscar nominations, and Sundance Film Festival Audience and Grand Jury Awards. Samels also serves on
the Board of Governors at the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Prior to joining WGBH, Samels worked as an
independent documentary filmmaker, an executive producer for several U.S. public television stations and as a producer
for the first co-production between Japanese and American television. A native of Wisconsin, he is a graduate of the
University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Television’s most-watched history series, AMERICAN EXPERIENCE has been hailed as “peerless” (Wall Street
Journal), “the most consistently enriching program on television” (Chicago Tribune), and “a beacon of
intelligence and purpose” (Houston Chronicle). On air and online, the series brings to life the incredible
characters and epic stories that have shaped America’s past and present. Acclaimed by viewers and critics alike,
AMERICAN EXPERIENCE documentaries have been honored with every major broadcast award, including 14 George
Foster Peabody Awards, four duPont-Columbia Awards, and 30 Emmy Awards, including, most recently, Exceptional Merit
in Nonfiction Filmmaking for Freedom Riders.
Exclusive corporate funding for AMERICAN EXPERIENCE is provided by Liberty Mutual. Major funding
is provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Additional funding for
Custer’s Last Stand
is provided by Documentary Investment Group Members: Nordblom Family Foundation and Rick and Nonnie Burnes, the
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and public television viewers. AMERICAN EXPERIENCE is produced for PBS by
For further information contact Linda Miller, WTVP Vice President of
at (309) 495-0591 or email@example.com