Rapid Destruction of African Elephants, Fueled by Illegal Ivory Trade,
Is Explored in New National Geographic Special,
Battle for the Elephants
Airs Wednesday, February 27th, at 8pm on WTVP-HD.
– Program Features First-Ever Footage of the World’s Largest Stockpile of Elephant Tusks –
Battle for the Elephants,
a groundbreaking, new, one-hour special produced by National Geographic Television, explores the brutal
slaughter of African elephants for their tusks, fueled largely by China’s demand for ivory. The program
airs Wednesday, Feb. 27, at 8 p.m. on WTVP-Public Media.
The film tells the ultimate wildlife story — how the Earth’s most charismatic and majestic
land animal today faces market forces driving the value of its tusks to levels once reserved for precious
metals. Journalists Bryan Christy and Aidan Hartley take viewers undercover as they investigate the
criminal network behind ivory’s supply and demand. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, one of the world’s main
ports for smuggled ivory, Hartley poses as an ivory buyer and uses hidden cameras to film poachers
negotiating the sale of large quantities of tusks. In China, Christy explores the thriving industry of
luxury goods made from ivory and the ancient cultural tradition of ivory carving.
The film is based in part on an article by Christy, published in the October 2012 issue of
National Geographic magazine, titled
“If the current situation remains the status quo, we are facing the very real possibility
that elephants living in the wild will go extinct in the coming decades,” said John Heminway, writer,
producer and director of Battle for the Elephants. “In Africa, wildlife conservationists,
particularly in Kenya, are risking their lives to protect these animals, but they are losing the fight.
The market for smuggled ivory is too lucrative for poachers to resist, and our research suggests demand
for ivory in China is only going to rise.”
“There’s no more important and timely story of the plight of wildlife than Battle for
the Elephants,” said Beth Hoppe, chief programming executive and general manager of general audience
programming at PBS. “How we regulate the sale of ivory can potentially determine whether wild elephants live
or become extinct. This is a critical piece of documentary journalism that will hopefully help raise significant
awareness of the issue for people throughout the world.”
Since the opening up of the Chinese market and the growth of its economy, ivory, once a precious
material available only to the ruling elite, has become increasingly available to the growing Chinese middle
class. The film traces the ivory trade and its impact on Africa’s elephant population over the course of the
past two centuries. In 1800, an estimated 20 million elephants lived in Africa. With the rise of
industrialization and the mass production of items made from ivory, such as combs, billiard balls and piano
keys, the elephant population was cut in half. By 1913, as the United States consumed more than 200 tons of ivory
a year, only 10 million elephants remained. Post-war ivory consumption continued, and by 1989 the elephant population
was reduced to 600,000.
A worldwide ban on ivory sales in 1989 led to a rebound in the population, to about 1 million.
But in 1999 and 2008, due to pressure from countries in Asia and southern Africa, the Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) allowed two sanctioned sales of ivory.
According to Christy, these two sales gave cover to ivory smugglers in China, and the underground
market exploded. According to CITES, 25,000 elephants were killed in Africa last year, though other observers
say it could be many more. In Tanzania alone, poachers kill 30 elephants a day. The International Fund for Animal
Welfare estimates that 84 percent of the ivory sold in China is illegal.
Battle for the Elephants features those in Africa on the frontlines studying
elephant behavior and leading the deadly fight to protect the animals from armed poachers. At the Amboseli
Trust for Elephants in Kenya, Deputy Director Soila Sayialel explains how the elephants’ highly evolved
society, keen intelligence and ability to communicate across vast distances and to love, remember and even to
mourn, are far more complex than ever imagined. She also describes how the rise of poaching has caused
disturbing changes in elephant behavior, including increased agitation, stress and aggression in the presence
Hartley meets with Khamis Kagasheki, minister of natural resources in Tanzania, which stores
the world’s largest stockpile of elephant tusks in the world — 90 metric tons. Kagasheki agrees to allow
Hartley and the camera crew to take the first-ever footage of the vast warehouse that stores thousands of
tusks, valued at $50 million. Unlike Kenya, Tanzania, one of the poorest countries in the world, has not
agreed to burn its stockpile, arguing that the money from a sale could support conservation efforts. An
official says that if an international agency were to buy the tusks with the intention of burning them, they
would eagerly sell them.
Observing a master carver in China painstakingly create a priceless piece of art from ivory,
Christy acknowledges the exquisite beauty of the craft and the deep importance of ivory in Chinese culture
and tradition. However, he poses the central question: “Is this craft or this species more valuable?”
An educational website developed by National Geographic and PBS will provide information
about elephants and the illicit trade that is undermining their future. (The website will be posted
when it becomes available.)
Funding for Battle for the Elephants is provided by David H. Koch, Scott Asen,
the Engelhard Foundation and PBS.
Battle for the Elephants is a production of National Geographic Television.
Senior executive producer: John Bredar; writer, producer, director: John Heminway; producers: J.J. Kelley
and Katie Carpenter; editor: Margaret Noble; cinematographer: Toby Strong; vocal performances by the Kenyan
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About National Geographic Television
National Geographic Television is the documentary TV production arm of the National Geographic Society,
known around the world for its remarkable visuals and compelling stories. The Society is one of the world’s
largest scientific and educational organizations, supporting field science on every continent. In 1965, NGT
broke ground by broadcasting on American network television the first moving pictures from the summit of
Everest. Since then, it has continued to push technology to its limits to bring great stories to television
audiences worldwide. With 146 Emmy Awards and nearly 1,000 other industry accolades, NGT programming can be
seen throughout the United States on Public Television stations, on the National Geographic Channel and
globally through terrestrial broadcasters and National Geographic Channels International.
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